Foundations

Certain skills are pre-requisites for reading. Often students labelled as "unable" to read have simply not been taught these skills.

Training in assessment of reading difficulties

 

Foundations 

G Reid Lyon (Past-Branch Chief, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development)  
Children of the Code interview: Converging Evidence – Reading Research: What it Takes to Read 
This interview examines the contexts that affect children’s readiness to read, and the ways in which language experience and vocabulary growth affect cognitive development. Reid Lyon draws on extensive research and experience to provide insight into how many learning problems develop – and what educators should and should not be doing in response.
 
 
 
Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later (Cartmill E A, Armstrong B F III, Gleitman L R, Goldin-Meadow S, Medina T N and Trueswell J C 2013): Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The researchers explain that while the quantity of language to which young children are exposed is linked to their vocabulary growth, they also found a powerful influence on vocabulary was the quality of language interaction - in other words, the ways parents teach and model language through interaction with their children can have a significant impact. 
 
 
 
A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction: A Review of Scientifically Based Reading Research for Teachers (Learning Point Associates 2004)

How children develop their reading skills is closely linked to their awareness of how language works. The research summarized here addresses the five pillars of reading development and argues that phonemic awareness is a critically important skill which children must acquire in order to access the written code. It is also argues that teachers need deep and systematic knowledge in these domains. 

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Developing Oral Language in the Early Years (Carroll J 2012): EDtalk

Jane Carroll, speech language therapist and PhD student, discusses strategies for developing oral language in the early years environment. Jane argues that oral language is the foundation of literacy and having a strong oral language base is the best foundation that teachers can provide for literacy learning.

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Vocabulary / Oral Language / Comprehension: some research findings (Hempenstall K 2014) Retrieved from nifdi.org

An exhaustive summary of the research in each of these fields. This is essential reading for those who wish to grasp the depth and complexity of effective reading instruction.

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Debunking parenting myths: The Tale of the incompetent parent, the fiendish forward facing buggy & the developing child (Smith C BlogSmith @clarrysmith 2015)
This blogpost by an experienced Speech and Language Therapist challenges populous notions that parental talk with children is declining and that parents are responsible for the prevalence of children with speech and language difficulties at school. It calls for ‘an inclusive discourse’ based on evidence.

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Teaching Literacy Using a Multiple-Linguistic Word-Study Spelling Approach: A Systematic Review. (Wolter, J undated): EBP Briefs
This paper provides a literature review of multiple linguistic approaches to word study and finds links with improved decoding, spelling and writing. Multiple linguistic approaches include a range of skills such as phonological awareness, phonemic awareness and morphology. The links between the structures of language, understanding the written code, and being able to produce language using the written code suggest strong evidence for the reciprocal relationship between reading and linguistic skills.
 
 
Phonemic Awareness: What Does It Mean? (Hempenstall, K undated): article Education Oasis

Kerry Hempenstall explains the concept and application of the term phonemic awareness.

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Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and Phonics (Semingson, P undated)

This brief video by Assistant Professor Peggy Semingson, University of Texas, is an extremely helpful explanation of the importance of these concepts and how the terms are used. 

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Phonemic Awareness: yea, nay? (Hempenstall K 2014)  Retrieved from nifdi.org

Kerry Hempenstall covers definitions of phonemic awareness, surveys the research in this area and considers the implications for assessment and teaching.

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The Gail Gillon Phonological Awareness Training: University of Canterbury

Professor Gail Gillon has made her complete phonological awareness training programme downloadable for free. Although it is primarily aimed at children aged 5-7 years, I have used parts of it successfully with secondary school students who had difficulties in this area.

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Training in assessment of reading difficulties